Betelgeuse

will go supernova soon

 

The Moon’s gravitational field affects the tides.  It would be further expected that the excessive gravitational radiation from the SN will also affect the tides and water levels on Earth.  LIGO, the U.S. Government’s experimental gravitational apparatus, should record a sharp peak, and already has last year.  Its meaning is unclear. In the 1990’s, I submitted a manuscript describing a method for forecasting supernovas based on neutrino detection,  since the neutrino events from SN 1987a were recorded by Kamioka and other sites on Earth up to 12 hours before photons arrived.  It did not get published sadly. Furthermore, the data suggested that neutrinos travel faster than light by 0.0000008%.  This idea is now seriously investigated as a method to provide a warning signal of a impending visual supernova. A supernova, at the calculated distance of Betelgeuse, would only provide 0.0000008% of 680 years warning by this method.  So unless so unusual physics is at work, this method will only deliver about 3.0 minutes warning before the visual data from an object as close as Betelgeuse. See http://ribes.if.uj.edu.pl/psns/Artwork/hawaii/hawaii.html for more analysis.






Betelgeuse the star

Betelgeuse, a red super giant located at RA 05 55 10 and D +07 24 25, is a variable magnitude star from 0.2 to 1.2, located in the constellation Orion.  It has an approximate mass of 18.5 (10-20) solar masses and is, therefore, expected to go supernova as a Type II event, which ejects a neutron star.  Nobel Laureate Charles Townes et. al. have observed Betelgeuse to have a shrinking diameter of about 15% between 1993-2009 (0.043 to 0.056 arc sec). Historically, a  highly erratic magnitude fluctuation has also been noted.  Estimates of its luminosity vary from 85,000-140,000 solar units. It also has at least two orbiting bodies and some data suggest as many as five.  Furthermore, the Hubble Telescope has demonstrated this star has asymmetric hot spots and inconsistent convection circulation, as documented by Baldwin and others, during the 1990s. Additionally, Betelgeuse has been shown by VLTI to have dust and gas loss extending up to 30 AU, affecting its opacity. This sum of evidence leads to the reasonable conclusion an up close and terrestrial supernova event is relatively imminent!  Furthermore, this author suggests that any nearby supernova event in progress can influence the weather and may actually be responsible as the root cause for the presently observed global warming.

Supernova Development

A supernova occurs when a star has run out of hydrogen fuel, fuses helium to create carbon and oxygen over a 106 year period, and then burns anything in sight for another 103 years.  The envelope collapses upon itself, culminating in an explosion that demolishes the star.  In this case, a Type 11L event will most likely be produced, which has a sharper light curve. The question, it is thought, is not if, but when, this will occur. This thinking is based on old and limited models of stellar evolution.  To be sure, each celestial object undergoes transitions.  However, the exact flow-evolutionary diagram, the individual underlying state conditions, the transition trigger and the time a star spents in each stellar state is unknown.

If Betelgeuse is visible as a supernova in our lifetime, the supernova has already happened and the photon information is about to arrive. Calculating, at distance/c = time, one determines when the event is later to be recorded here. In fact, some astronomers have already reported radii expansion of 5AU, from an earlier 3.1AU shrinkage. At a distance of 495-640 LY, it will be considerably more visible than SN 1987A (app mag = 2.9, absol. |M| = -15.5; the progenitor, Sanduleak was |M| = -6.6, a blue super-giant), which was 168,000LY away in the LMC, maybe  an app mag as high as -31 (Sun= 26.74) [Betelgeuse app mag = 0.5 (0.0-1.3), |M|= -5.85]. Consequently, based on this and evaluating the following scientific parameters, Betelgeuse, I project, under known models, to become a supernova visible from Earth at a near date. Here is why.

Terrestrial Heat Impact from local Supernova

The Earth is heating up due to global warming, although no one is really sure of the cause. Former Vice President, Al Gore used CO2 build up to argue an atmospheric cause and effect.  Suppose, however, the Earth is just close enough to receive cosmic debris: cooler stellar junk, like comets, asteroids type solids, as well as the C, O2 and CO2 vapors from the SN, which document the early stages of a supernova. For SN by-products see, http://sdc.cab.inta-csic.es/ines/Ines_PCentre/Demos/Fluxdist/betelgeuse.html. Then buildup of these greenhouse gases could actually be part of an external “wind”, that acts synergistically with fossil fuel burning to multiply a global warming effect, with the consequence of the Earth becoming hotter and less oxygenated.  Consistent with this proposal is the local arrival of 6 comets during this last year and numerous asteroids, some of which came very, very close!  Should this link prove to be genuine, significant terrestrial warming will continue, through at least the SN visible event stages, as more matter arrives from the SN source. 

Terrestrial Supernova Consequences before Visible Light

Additionally, the Earth is not heating uniformly; rather it is extremely cold or extremely hot in unusual areas of the continents and these affected areas appear to migrate in locality and with the seasons. This further suggests a planetary dynamic could be involved and unfolding, originating from a stellar gravitational cataclysmic event. 


The inclination of the Earth in its orbit has a current value of 23 degrees, If this angle were to be changed or wobble, unusual and remote places would have dramatic weather changes, especially involving temperature and precipitation. Note: it has also long been suggested that the decay of the Earth’s magnetic field could indicate the beginning stages of a field reversal and/or flipping.  A magnetic field flippage has happened many times in the past, being well documented in oceanic tectonic plate records. The last one occurred about 10,000 years ago. Only 20 years ago, the terrestrial B(vector) was 0.5 Gauss; now it’s current value is accepted at 0.25 Gauss!  Should it additionally entail physically wobbling of the polar angular spin orientation, as the magnetic orientation flips, the weather will potentially become catastrophic during this process because the polar regions will become tropical and equatorial regions will become subzero for a time. Matter and radiation energy from the supernova will attenuate this effect on Earth, asymmetrically bombarding, leading to a more sudden magnetic pole reversal. In other words, a local star going supernova could be the causal agent of a magnetic flip or field reversal on Earth. This effect would be very sensitive to the angle of electromagnetic and/or debris impact relative to the Earth’s torque and alignment. Even minor effects on the magnetic field and polar orientation would be dramatic to the weather, spin, angular momentum, and orbit inclination orientation. 

Terrestrial Supernova Consequences at  Visible Light

Furthermore, a supernova of Betelgeuse, about the same size as Sanduleak was thought to be will be brighter than the Sun and tilluminate the radiation will include electrons, protons, probably some pions, and muons arriving over a long period of time. The immediate radiation, should be neutrinos, photons and gravitation.  There will be some genetic mutations, adaptions and evolutionary effects on plant and animal life, I would imagine!

Supernova Consequences of Gravitational Radiation

Supernova Effects of Gamma Radiation

Supernovas emit radiation at all frequenices, including gamma rays.  At the present time, NASA reports GRBs are increasing in frequency, although directional data is not discernible for most events. GRBs would be expected from the superheated plasma either in pre or post supernova  implosion; this could serve as a pre-SN signal. Gamma rays from a supernova that close will likely destroy the protective polar ozone layers as well.