Betelgeuse

will go supernova soon

 

The Moon’s gravitational field affects the tides, thus it is conservative to expect that the excess gravitational radiation from the SN will also affect the tides and water levels on Earth, which also impact the weather patterns. LIGO, the U.S. Government’s experimental gravitational apparatus, should record a sharp peak, if it works at all. Back in the 1990’s, this author submitted a manuscript describing a method for forecasting supernovas based on neutrino detection, describing that since the neutrino events from SN 1987a were received by Kamioka and other sites on Earth up to 12 hours before photons arrived, indicated neutrinos travel faster than light by 0.0000008%. Of course the manuscript was rejected and by the journal Science, no less. Yet, this method is now in use for that very reason to provide a warning signal of a supernova by Kamioka.  However, a SN at the distance of Betelgeuse would only provide 0.0000008% of 680 years warning; so, it will be in the detectors only 3.0 minutes before the visual data. See http://ribes.if.uj.edu.pl/psns/Artwork/hawaii/hawaii.html for more analysis.






Betelgeuse the star

Betelgeuse, a red super giant located at RA 05 55 10 and D +07 24 25, is a variable magnitude star from 0.2 to 1.2, located in the constellation Orion.  It has an approximate mass of 18.5 (10-20) solar masses and is, therefore, expected to go supernova as a Type II event, which ejects a neutron star.  Nobel Laureate Charles Townes et. al. have observed Betelgeuse to have a shrinking diameter of about 15% between 1993-2009 (0.043 to 0.056 arc sec). Historically, a  highly erratic magnitude fluctuation has also been noted.  Estimates of its luminosity vary from 85,000-140,000 solar units. It also has at least two orbiting bodies and some data suggest as many as five.  Furthermore, the Hubble Telescope has demonstrated this star has asymmetric hot spots and inconsistent convection circulation, as documented by Baldwin and others, during the 1990s. Additionally, Betelgeuse has been shown by VLTI to have dust and gas loss extending up to 30 AU, affecting its opacity. This sum of evidence leads to the reasonable conclusion an up close and terrestial supernova event is imminent!  Furthermore, this author suggests that a nearby supernova event in progress can influence the weather and may actually be responsible as the root cause for the presently observed global warming.

Supernova Development

A supernova occurs when a star has run out of hydrogen fuel, fuses helium to create carbon and oxygen over a 106 year period, and then burns anything in sight for another 103 years.  The envelope collapses upon itself, culminating in an explosion that demolishes the star.  In this case, a Type 11L event will most likely be produced, which has a sharper light curve. The question, it is thought, is not if, but when, this will occur. This thinking is based on out limited model of stellar evolution.  To be sure, each celestial object undergoes transitions.  However, the exact flow -evolutionary diagram, the individual underlying state conditions, the transition trigger and the time spent in each stellar state is unknown.

If Betelgeuse is visible as a supernova in our lifetime, the supernova has already happened and the photon information is about to arrive. Calculating, at distance/c = time, one determines when the event is to be recorded here. In fact, some astronomers have already reported radii expansion of 5AU, from an earlier 3.1AU shrinkage. At a distance of 495-640 LY, it will be considerably more visible than SN 1987A, which was 169,000LY away in the LMC, by a factor of 35 ?. Consequently, based on this and evaluating the following scientific parameters, Betelgeuse is projected under known models to become a supernova visible from Earth at a near date. Here is why.

Terrestial Heat Impact from local Supernova

The Earth is heating up due to global warming, although no one is really sure of the cause. Former Vice President, Al Gore used CO2 build up to argue an atmospheric cause and effect.  Suppose, however, the Earth is just close enough to receive cosmic debris: cooler stellar junk, like comets, asteroids type solids, as well as the C, O2 and CO2 vapors from the SN, which document the early stages of a supernova. For SN by-products see, http://sdc.cab.inta-csic.es/ines/Ines_PCentre/Demos/Fluxdist/betelgeuse.html. Then buildup of these greenhouse gases could actually be part of an external “wind”, that acts synergistically with fossil fuel burning to multiply a global warming effect, with the consequence of the Earth becoming hotter and less oxygenated.  Consistent with this proposal is the local arrival of 6 comets during this last year and numberous asteroids, some of which came very, very close!  Should this link prove to be genuine, significant terrestrial warming will continue, through at least the SN visible event stages, as more matter arrives from the SN source. 

Terrestial Supernova Consequences before Visible Light

Additionally, the Earth is not heating uniformly; rather it is extremely cold or extremely hot in unusual areas of the continents and these affected areas appear to migrate in locality and with the seasons. This further suggests a planetary dynamic could be involved and unfolding, originating from a stellar gravitational catalysmic event. 


The inclination of the Earth in its orbit has a current value of 23 degrees, If this angle were to be changed or wobble, unusual and remote places would have dramatic weather changes, especially involving temperature and precipitation. Note: it has long been suggested that the decay of the Earth’s magnetic field could indicate the beginning stages of a field reversal and/or flipping.  A magnetic field flippage has happened many times in the past, being well documented in oceanic tectonic plate records. The last one occurred about 10,000 years ago. Only 20 years ago, the terrestial B(vector) was 0.5 Gauss; now it’s current value is accepted at 0.25 Gauss!  Should it additionally entail physically wobbling of the polar angular spin orientation, as the magnetic orientation flips, the weather will potentially become catastrophic during this process because the polar regions will become tropical and equatorial regions will become subzero for a time. Matter and radiation energy from the supernova will attenuate this effect on Earth, asymmetrically bombarding, leading to a more sudden magnetic pole reversal. This effect would be greatest if the supernova occurs during August, when the higher latitude would move the greatest amount to impact the torque and alignment.  Although a supernova at this distance will not deliver enough energy to produce this effect, this possible mechanism could account for a  known wobble with a 30,000 year period?.


If only the magnetic field values and polar orientation are affected, but not the spin angular momentum orientation, the effect will still exist, but be less dramatic.  Nonetheless, expect more subtle changes exactly as are currently documented: extreme rain; extreme heat spots; excessively powerful category hurricanes.

Terrestial Supernova Consequences at  Visible Light

Furthermore, a supernova of a star this big and this close will illuminate the day sky to about - 3 magnitude, equivalent to a full Moon.  The radiation will include electrons, protons, some pions, and a few muons arriving over a long period of time. The immediate radiation, however, will include neutrinos, photons and of course, the long sought after, gravitational radiation bump/boost.

Supernova Consequences of Gravitational Radiation

Supernova Effects of Gamma Radiation

Gamma rays travel at velocity = c.  At the present time, NASA reports GRBs are increasing in frequency, although directional data is not discernable for most events. GRBs would be expected to be produced in a superheated plasma pre or post implosion and could provide a photon pre-SN signal reaching Earth now.  The remainder of photons in the full intensity spectrum received here on Earth would be expected to have lower energies and obey the Boltzman Stefan Law of  energy distribution. They would arrive as the visual event. The gamma rays would likley destroy the protective terresial polar ozone layer, at a minimum, and modify life, at worst case.